Welcome curious cat lovers! Skye Blake here with a “boring” subject… pet food regulations and oversight… yawn!
Well, actually it’s pretty interesting if you’re concerned about your cat’s food and what’s in it.
Let’s uncover some nuggets…
- Pet Food Regulations & Oversight
- Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) of 2011
- Federal Agencies & Regulation Enforcement
- Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Requirements
- State Requirements
- Related Professional Organizations
- Related Pages of Interest
- List of Sources
Pet Food Regulations & Oversight
Ok, so rules, laws and regulations aren’t fun or sexy, but they are important, so bear with me here.
There are misunderstandings and accusations in the cat food world about the pet food industry, the quality of food, and what ingredients they use.
So, you may be surprised to learn that pet food is among the most highly regulated food industries in the United States and Europe.
Having this oversight helps ensure that companies are following high safety standards.
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) of 2011
Pet food regulation has evolved over the last century, focusing mainly on food safety and honest marketing.
In 1938, the U.S. Congress passed a law requiring pet food manufacturers to sell safe products (the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act [FFDCA] of 1938).
But it wasn’t until the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) of 2011 that major changes were made to food safety regulations.
The main point of this law is prevention of foodborne sicknesses, especially bacteria like Salmonella.
Federal Agencies & Regulation Enforcement
Agencies at both the federal and state levels have regulations that pet food manufacturers have to follow in order to be in compliance with the FSMA and other laws or regulations.
The federal agencies most involved in the industry are…
- Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – regulates pet food labeling and advertising claims
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – sets both minimum and maximum limits on certain nutrients; bans the use of medications or antibiotics in foods.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) – regulates meat quality and decides which animals can be used in human and pet food
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) controls what animals ore in pet food and the meat quality.
Its involvement in the pet food industry is primarily with sources, particularly the agricultural industry.
Discover more details at “About AMS – Agricultural Marketing Service (usda.gov)“
“The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent, bipartisan agency of the U.S. government tasked with protecting consumers and ensuring a strong competitive market…
Its principal purpose is to enforce non-criminal antitrust laws in the United States, preventing and eliminating anticompetitive business practices, including coercive monopolies.
The FTC also seeks to protect consumers from predatory or misleading business practices.”1 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Definition (investopedia.com)
Discover more at “Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Definition” and “Federal Trade Commission | Protecting America’s Consumers“
“The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the manufacture of cat food, dog food, and dog treats or snacks you have in your pantry…
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) requires that all animal foods, like human foods, be safe to eat, produced under sanitary conditions, contain no harmful substances, and be truthfully labeled.
‘All commercial pet food facilities in the U.S. must register with FDA (Food & Drug Administration) and are regularly audited by agency inspectors.” “How Pet Food Is Made” – Pet Food Institute
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Requirements
Here are two important requirements from the FSMA as they relate to the pet food industry…
Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs)
Pet food manufacturers must apply current good practices (CGMP’s) to their operations to be sure the food is safe.
They must also be diligent to anticipate possible food safety concerns and address them before they become a problem.
Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls
Manufacturers must also identify and evaluate potential safety hazards (physical, chemical and biological), then set up controls to prevent or minimize them.
Every state within the U.S. requires pet food companies to register each of their products.
Related Professional Organizations
AAFCO is NOT a regulatory or enforcement organization, but does develop “just and equitable standards, definitions and policies for the enforcement of feed laws”.6 The Role of AAFCO in Pet Food Regulation
“AAFCO has created a large number of models providing guidance, definitions, terms and best-management practices in addition to the Model Bill and Model Feed Regulations (including Model Pet Food Regulations).”8 The Role of AAFCO in Pet Food Regulation
They submit the models they create to various legislative and rulemaking bodies, who consider them when developing laws and regulations.
AAFCO also provides a forum for industry and state officials to “develop uniform language that states may adopt or reference in laws”. 9 “AAFCO-The People Behind Animal Feed and Pet Food, 2019“
AAFCO’s role is sometimes confusing, so it’s important to note that it never directly tests, regulates, approves, or certifies pet foods.
Since individual AAFCO members are government officials, they have the authority to regulate animal feed within their jurisdictions.
But AAFCO, the organization, has no regulatory authority whatsoever.
An example is the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), a member of AAFCO, that regulates and enforces laws about the manufacture of pet foods.
There is no such thing as an “AAFCO-approved” or “AAFCO-certified” product.
Find out more about reading labels at “Reading Cat Food Labels“.
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) is ” an ‘association of associations’, which means that our membership comprises companion animal veterinary associations from all over the world.
Their Global Nutrition Committee focuses on offering “expert, evidence-based nutritional information for companion animals to support the veterinary healthcare team.”11 Global Nutrition Committee (wsava.org)
They help both “the veterinary healthcare team and the public understand the importance of nutrition in companion animal health by providing an expert source of accurate nutritional information and recommendations.”12 Global Nutrition Committee (wsava.org)
The Corporate Sponsor Question
WSAVA has corporate sponsors, but does that make it biased toward those companies?
Before jumping to that conclusion, look for evidence of preference in the guidelines, recommendations, and other information WSAVA publishes.
One indication that sponsorship is not influencing WSAVA recommendations is that there is no such thing as a “WSAVA-approved” or “WSAVA-certified” product.
“It should be no surprise that the companies doing the most to ensure the safety, nutritional adequacy, and quality of their diet would also be the companies most likely to reinvest their profits into animal welfare and wellness initiatives.
It may be prudent to wonder less why certain companies are supporting WSAVA, and more why other companies are not, and what they are doing with their profits instead.”14 AllTradesDVM – WSAVA, AAFCO, and DACVNs
WSAVA Cat Food & Nutrition Guides
WSAVA’s Global Nutrition Committee has some excellent guides…
- “Frequently Asked Questions & Myths“, Last Updated January 2018
This video has helpful information about AAFCO and WSAVA nutrition guidelines.
The entire video is well worth watching, but the specifics about AAFCO and WSAVA start at 7:02.
Discover more about feline nutrition and food on these related pages…
Related Pages of Interest
Sources used on this website are either primary or secondary.
Primary sources are always preferable and have the most reliable information because they’re original and directly referenced.
Scientific abstracts and data are good examples of primary sources.
Secondary sources are weaker because they usually consist of opinions or articles that give no sources of their own.
Sometimes they refer to primary sources.
When I use secondary sources, most are those with some authority, such as veterinarian or cat behaviorist books and articles.
List of Sources
“6 Things Your Vet Wants You to Know About Cat Food “, by Amanda MacMillan, Reviewed by Amy Flowers, DVM, April 01, 2018, webmd.com
“18 Different Types of Cat Food: What’s Best for Your Cat?“, Excited Cats
“AAFCO Talks Pet Food” (aafco.org)
“About AMS | Agricultural Marketing Service” (usda.gov)
“The Association of American Feed Control Officials” (aafco.org)
“Canned or Dry Food: Which is Better for Cats?“, Skeptvet (skeptvet.com)
“Do Cats Need Wet Food? – How to Choose a Wet Cat Food” by Emily Drew, PetMag.com, February 12, 2021
“FDA’s Regulation of Pet Food“, FDA.gov
“Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Definition” (investopedia.com)
“Frequently Asked Questions & Myths“, wsava.org, Last Updated January 2018
“Global Nutrition Committee” (wsava.org)
“Global Nutrition Guidelines” (wsava.org)
“Guidelines on Selecting Pet Foods“, wsava.org
“How Pet Food is Made“, Pet Food Institute (petfoodinstitute.org)
“How pet food is made – making, used, processing, parts, components, product, industry, machine“, How Products Are Made (madehow.com)
“How to Calculate How Much Wet Food to Feed a Cat”, by Jennifer Coates, DVM, PetMD, November 2, 2018
“Ingredient Standards” (aafco.org)
“Is wet food bad for cats? A vet’s view“, PetsRadar
“The People Behind Animal Feed and Pet Food“, aafco.org, 2019”
“Pet Food“, FDA
“Questions & Answers: Contaminants in Pet Food“, FDA, July 29, 2021
“Wet vs. Dry Cat Food, or Both?”, by Cathy Meeks, MS, DVM, DACVIM, PetMD.com, January 19, 2021
“WSAVA, AAFCO, and DACVNs“, AllTradesDVM
Updated January 9, 2023