Skye Blake here, reporting on something dear to every feline heart… FOOD! We love to eat it… but you wanna know “What’s the best cat food?”
You’re actually asking the wrong question… Instead, ask “What’s the most complete and balanced food for this stage of my cat’s life?”
Come join the hunt as we slog through the murky swamp of cat nutrition and food!
The information here is for general knowledge… always see your vet with questions about your cat’s individual needs.
- Who Is Skye Blake?
- Where to Start?
- Who Should You Believe About Nutrition?
- It All Starts With Nutrition
- Diet & the Lifespan of Cats
- Good Nutrition and Your Wallet
- All The Confusion and Debate!
- What People Want from Cat Food
- The Pitfalls of Viewing Cat Food from a Human Perspective
- What Cats Want from Cat Food
- Cat Food Must Be…
- So, What's the Best Cat Food?
- Types of Cat Food
- Keep Your Sanity
- Ready to Discover More?
- List of Sources
Who Is Skye Blake?
Skye Blake, Cat Info Detective, is a curious cat researcher (not a veterinarian) who sniffs out expert, reliable sources about cats, studies their information, then passes it on to you!
Sometimes there’s not enough evidence for easy answers, so Skye gives you all sides, explains the situation as thoroughly and clearly as possible, and links you to experts on each page.
All sources are at the bottom of each page so you can do more snooping.
Where to Start?
At the beginning of your journey to discover the best cat food, there are many paths you can take.
Much depends on who you believe and there are many real, as well as self-appointed, experts you can follow.
You’ll discover quickly that feline nutrition and food is a very complex topic that requires a thorough understanding of all aspects to be sure you’re giving your cat a complete, balanced diet.
It’s a serious matter that you can’t approach by following the latest trends or fads.
This is because an incomplete, unbalanced diet (say, giving only raw hamburger) robs your cat of specific vitamins and minerals she needs, giving her serious health problems that can be fatal.
Which way do you go and who do you trust for accurate helpful information?
Who Should You Believe About Nutrition?
As I started following trails to find answers about nutrition and cat food, I kept finding reasonable sounding claims by various “experts” that had either questionable or no clinical studies to back them.
Don’t get me wrong, these claims could be partly or completely true… but there’s no scientific proof either way.
That leaves us back at the beginning with the same unanswered question… “How do you know what the best food is for your cat’s current stage of life?”
Every cat has individual nutritional needs depending on their stage of life and medical condition.
If you do, you’ll want to consult with a board-certified veterinary nutritionist.
This makes it important to talk to your veterinarian and from there decide if you need a specialist.
What’s a Board-Certified Veterinary Nutritionist?
Board-certified veterinary nutritionists are specialists who are the most educated, qualified nutrition experts available.
They have the most comprehensive and complete, well-rounded understanding of nutrition.
There are also qualified vet nutritionists who haven’t taken the board tests but have the knowledge to help with your cat’s diet needs.
Your vet can refer you to someone reliable.
Keeping an Open Mind
Reputable vets and specialists make decisions based on the available clinically proven, peer reviewed evidence.
An important quality about a good nutritionist or vet is a willingness to look at the latest evidence and adapt their positions accordingly, even if it goes against what they believe is the “right” position on an issue.
The tendency to “cherry pick” (interpret or pick out parts of a study to fit what they want it to say) is a real problem with people who rigidly cling to their views even when presented with evidence to the contrary.
Discover more about vet nutritionists at “What’s a Veterinary Nutritionist?“
You can find them at American College of Veterinary Nutrition | ACVN.
Here’s a helpful video by Dr. Em, DVM, explaining nutritionists…
It All Starts With Nutrition
Now that we’ve found reliable sources, we can start putting together sensible information to find the best food for your cat.
Ever heard the old saying “You are what you eat”?
It’s truer than you might think, both for you and your cat!
Food is the vessel that gets essential nutrients into the body, so it’s important for you to know what those needs are.
Just as with people, we felines eat to get proper nutrition, not just to survive, but to thrive.
We can suffer from nutritional deficiencies, just like humans!
For example, in humans it’s well known that lack of vitamin C causes scurvy, a wasting disease that has historically killed many sailors.
In the feline world, lack of the amino acid taurine in our diets in the 1980’s caused heart disease that killed an alarming number of us.
An improper diet can also contribute to diabetes and skin problems, as well as intestine, bladder, liver, and kidney diseases.
Every cat’s nutritional needs change from one life stage to another, from kitten to senior, active to lounging, robust health to the decline of age.
You need someone with the knowledge and experience to weigh the effects of all these things when deciding the best diet for your cat’s individual needs.
This is where your vet can be very helpful to make diet adjustments as appropriate for her stage of life and medical condition.
Diet & the Lifespan of Cats
Not that long ago, we cats were strictly outdoor critters, useful for getting rid of pests like mice.
We got the nutrition we needed from what we killed, but it wasn’t perfect.
Our food carried parasites and we weren’t always able to catch enough to be healthy very long.
My outdoor cousins have a lifespan of 2-5 years and usually don’t live long enough to have problems that show up in older indoor cats, like diabetes and arthritis.
As any rescuer can tell you, they die from illnesses, parasites, malnutrition, starvation, accidents, and becoming prey to other predators.
Only recently have we felines been kept indoors and enabled to live 20 years or more.
So, it’s obvious that lack of proper nutrition affects us kitties, just like it affects humans.
Scientists don’t know how it affects us over long indoor lifetimes, though, and they continue to study these things.
In fact, studies typically state possible conclusions, but make clear that more studying needs to be done before definite proof of connections can be shown between specific types of diets, illness and lifespan.
Good Nutrition and Your Wallet
Don’t underestimate the impact of good cat food on your wallet.
You may have to pay a bit more now for great nutrition but consider what you’ll save when your cat gets older and you’re not paying vet bills for preventable diseases like diabetes and kidney failure.
Figure out the cost of what you feed per day for whatever type of food you’re thinking of buying.
This will give you a way to compare dry, canned and raw diets.
Then when you’re able, you can get better quality foods to fit your cat’s needs.
You can even mix kibble with wet food to stretch your dollar further.
You’ll also be giving your cat variety, which is good if he has to be on a specific health diet later in life.
Cats eating only one type of food all their lives, like kibble, can end up refusing other food when they need it most.
All The Confusion and Debate!
As soon as you dip your toe into the cat food swamp, you’ll feel you’re being sucked into quicksand!
There are so many confusing and conflicting claims by everyone from vets to pet food companies, nutritionists to self-described “experts”.
Why? The simple reason is because there’s so little real evidence available.
Lack of Scientific Research
Nutrition is difficult to translate into scientific measurements.
This is because our bodies function in complex ways that aren’t all well understood.
There have been very few independent nutrition studies done with cats, and none that I can find about long-term health over the lifetime of cats.
Creating true scientific studies with only one variable is difficult when attempting to isolate the long-term effects of specific diets.
There are simply too many variables!
Until there are true in-depth clinical studies conducted by trained nutrition scientists (both short-term and long-term), the only evidence we can use is anecdotal (personal observations).
Combining what both owners and veterinarians observe about cats over time is certainly helpful but is missing the support of clinical studies and can be very flawed.
This is especially true when a study is based solely on interviews with cat owners.
Testing Done by Pet Food Companies
Reputable pet food companies, usually the bigger, more established ones that have the budget, routinely test their products to be sure they’re complete and balanced according to accepted nutritional standards.
Ensuring their products are complete and balanced is extremely important.
Many of them also have veterinary nutritionists on staff or consult with them to guide their nutrition research, ingredient selections and product formulations.
By working with vet nutritionists and other scientists, they’re able to make food specifically for all stages of your cat’s life.
This includes food for growing kittens, maintaining adult health, and dealing with specific conditions of senior cats with health problems.
There’s an inherent conflict of interest when any company does its own product testing, but independent testing is also done but interested groups.
However, it’s in the best interest of the company to do in-house development and testing because they can control recipes and ingredient sources, catch problems and correct them immediately.
Why Aren’t Reliable Independent Studies Available?
You’re probably wondering why there aren’t studies that prove one type of food is best for cats.
What we know as veterinary medicine for pets has only evolved over the last 100 years.
Prior to the time between World Wars I and II, medical help for animals in Europe and North America was focused primarily on horses and farm animals.
Horses were vital for armies as well as civilian daily life and survival.
They were the only method of transportation in most of the world (camels and elephants only being practical and available in limited areas).
Farm animals like cattle, oxen, sheep, hogs, poultry, and goats were also necessary for human survival and farmers’ livelihoods.
It wasn’t until 1947 when clay cat litter was invented that people started keeping cats indoors as full-time pets.
Prior to that we were always barn cats or indoor/outdoor visitors.
By then medicine had been expanded to include working, military and pet dogs.
Over time, interest grew to expand what was known about dogs to cats and other pets.
For some reason, it was believed until recently that anything that applied to dogs also applied to cats.
This is why most studies and vet training has focused on the canine world more than feline (hmpff! Don’t they know we’re far superior??)
Only recently have scientists discovered that we cats aren’t little dogs… our bodies function differently enough from dogs to warrant our own studies, food, and care.
Qualifiers & Consensus
People search for articles published in scientific journals or sites to find information that supports their beliefs.
But most of these articles make it clear that what they’ve found is insufficient or merely creates more questions that need answers before factual conclusions can be made.
This is confirmed by the fact that studies (or their abstracts) have many qualifying words.
For example, words like “consensus”, “may”, “possibly”, “should”, “believe”, “likely”, “potential”, are all used because definite conclusions cannot be drawn from what they found.
Words like “prove”, “proof”, “definite”, “fact” don’t need qualifying words around them.
Ethical scientists will use qualifying words unless there is absolute proof determined by studies.
Exact conclusions can be made only when facts are shown.
Facts are definite and true… they stand alone and can never change.
They don’t need qualifying words or a consensus of agreement between scientists.
“Consensus” is often used to give authority to conclusions drawn that aren’t based solely on facts.
It simply means a group of scientists agree about possible conclusions to draw from a study.
“Peer reviewed” means a panel or group of scientists and experts in the field have reviewed clinical trials and other scientific publications for authenticity, sound practices, and other criteria confirming the reliability of study results.
Educated or not, studies most often end up asking more questions and/or conclude that more study is needed.
In the absence of actual proof everyone must remain open minded and wait for more evidence before drawing final conclusions.
So, be skeptical of people who insist they’re right with no evidence to back their claims.
If they have only anecdotal evidence, it’s up to you how much faith you want to put in it.
What People Want from Cat Food
Besides the lack of good scientific evidence, there’s the problem of what humans want from cat food vs. what we fabulous felines want!
Let’s look first at what people want when dealing with their cat’s food…
- Convenience – food that’s not messy, is easy to store, easy to pour/serve
- Long-Lasting – food that stays fresh awhile and can be used for more than one serving
- Least Cost Possible- getting the most bang for the buck, especially when money is tight
- Healthy & Nutritious – keeping their cat as healthy as possible (saving $$ on vet bills too!)
The Pitfalls of Viewing Cat Food from a Human Perspective
There’s an interesting phenomenon that humans do when it comes to your pets.
There’s a big fancy word for it… “anthropomorphization”.
Wow! That’s a mouthful (especially for a cat like me!)
It means… “to ascribe human form or attributes to a thing or a being not human.”1 Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
People do that all the time with us fabulous felines! They project their emotions and even what they’re thinking onto us.
(We try to take advantage of that as much as possible… teehee!)
You look at it, especially dry food, and wonder “How can this be good for my cat to eat?”
There’s another strange thing that humans have a tendency to do… even with food!
People like to romanticize the realities of nature, animals in the wild, and even farming.
Ever heard a young couple dream out loud about living on a farm and having “the simple, pure life”?
Any farmer or homesteader can quickly enlighten them… nature isn’t simple or pure!
Farming, subsisting on the land, is a hard, backbreaking lifestyle.
It’s 24/7 worry, work, dependence on the weather, expensive equipment maintenance, fuel costs, feed and care costs for animals, insects and disease, crop failures, and the reality of life and death daily.
And that’s just the beginning!
It’s the same with romanticizing pets, wanting them to be eating as their wild ancestors did, and similar ideas.
People have been using the argument that dogs should eat like their ancestors the wolves.
This sounds reasonable but the scientific evidence shows that dogs don’t digest the same way wolves do.
They’re cousins but not physically the same, so their nutrition needs are different.
Romanticizing animals can lead to misunderstandings about the importance of creating a complete and balanced diet for pets.
This can be a dangerous way to view your cat’s nutrition… veterinarians constantly see the heartbreaking results.
Instead look at it this way…
What Cats Want from Cat Food
- Enticing Aroma- we only eat things that smell good to us!
- Particular Textures – many of us are picky, especially about textures (paté vs. chunks, dry vs. wet, etc.)
- Delicious Taste – must be yummy, yummy in my tummy!
- Variety – for some cats variety is the spice of life, for others not so much
- Meat or things that taste like meat
- Room Temperature – not cold from the refrigerator or hot from the stove or microwave
Cat Food Must Be…
- Complete – has all the needed proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals
- Balanced – nutrients are in the right amounts and concentrations
- Easily absorbed – nutrition must be easily available for the body to use (“bioavailability”)
This is important to prevent serious health problems from nutritional imbalances and is the main concern vets have when recommending specific foods.
They see the serious, even fatal, consequences of people trying to feed a diet they thought was healthy without knowing enough to make sure it’s complete and balanced.
Unfortunately, this happens most often with people attempting to feed do-it-yourself raw or homemade diets without properly educating themselves and committing to the work involved.
So, What’s the Best Cat Food?
There’s no one food or brand that’s best for all the stages of your cat’s life, so start by determining the best type of cat food that will give your cat the most nutrition.
Once your cat has had a checkup and you’ve discussed any health concerns, look at the various types of food and decide what works best for your lifestyle (that your cat will eat).
Types of Cat Food
Types of cat food are basically different methods of processing ingredients.
It used to be there were only two types available, wet and dry.
Now the different types can be bewildering, so we’ll divide them by texture…
- wet (canned)
- semi-moist (pouched)
- raw (fresh, frozen, or freeze-dried)
- lightly cooked (canned or pouched)
Let’s make it simple… whatever you choose must be nutritionally complete and balanced.
That means each serving has all the necessary nutrients your cat needs to be healthy.
Vet nutritionists often recommend using both wet and dry food so your cat can be familiar with the various textures.
This is important as your cat ages if she develop conditions like kidney disease that require a specific diet.
Dry (Kibble) Food
Dry food (a.k.a., “kibble”) is very popular for two reasons…
- it’s convenient for people to use
- it can sit out all day without spoiling
However, there are questions, controversies and misunderstandings about dry kibble that you need to know.
Discover more at “Dry Cat Food (Kibble)“.
It usually comes in convenient pouches that keep the food soft and moist.
But is it nutritious?
Discover more about semi-moist food at “”Wet Cat Food“.
Wet Food – Commercial (Canned)
Most people are familiar with the many varieties of commercial canned wet food.
Many cats prefer it to kibble because it’s got real meat so the aroma, texture and taste appeal more to them.
But there are always exceptions… cats being cats.
Logically, wet food seems like it’s the best for your buddy, but is it nutritionally balanced?
Is it ok that it’s cooked?
Learn more about wet food at “”Wet Cat Food“.
Nothing seems to create as much controversy in the Cat Food World as the raw food diet!
Both sides claim that science is on their side and their way is best, safest or most nutritious.
It’s important for you to have all the facts before deciding, especially about do-it-yourself diets, since doing it wrong can endanger your cat’s health.
Treats, Toppers, Supplements
Most people are familiar with cat treats.
If you use low-calorie treats for training, they can be worthwhile, but most treats are high in calories.
Be sure to factor treats into the total calories you feed your cat each day.
Toppers and supplements are helpful with specific nutritional situations.
Insect-Based Cat Food
Wait a minute, what?! Yes, the pet industry is developing products based on insects!
It kind of makes sense because even the fussiest feline feaster occasionally enjoys snagging a buggy snack.
Currently, the buzz is about using black soldier fly larvae as a sustainable, nutritious and tasty ingredient for insect-based protein in pet food and treats.
The goal is to find usable protein sources for pet foods that don’t compete with human sources, especially with meats like beef, fish and poultry.
Keep Your Sanity
Keep your sanity by keeping an open mind, learning what you can, and being happy with whatever choices you make.
As long as you follow the basic rule of using 100% complete and balanced meals, you can make a few mistakes along the way.
Beyond that, your cat will decide which you end up using!
Get the best food you can afford, make adjustments as you go along, and don’t obsess about it.
A word of caution: Don’t feel you have to justify your choices on social media… you’ll drive yourself nuts!
Some pet food fads can hurt your cat… check out this video for more…
Ready to Discover More?
At this point you’ve learned quite a bit about choosing your cat’s food.
But wait… there’s more!
Discover more about nutrition and cat food at “Cat Food!“
Sources used on this website are either primary or secondary.
Primary sources are always preferable and have the most reliable information because they’re original and directly referenced.
Scientific abstracts and data are good examples of primary sources.
Secondary sources are weaker because they usually consist of opinions or articles that give no sources of their own.
Sometimes they refer to primary sources.
When I use secondary sources, most are those with some authority, such as veterinarian or cat behaviorist books and articles.
List of Sources
5 Tips On Proper Nutrition For Your Pregnant Cat” by Lisa Selvaggio, PetGuide, August 14, 2014
77 Things to Know Before Getting a Cat by Susan M. Ewing, Fox Chapel Publishers, Ltd., 2018, pp. 79-95
A-Z of Cat Diseases & Health Problems by Bradley Viner, Bvet Med MRCVS, Howell Book House, a Simon & Schuster/Macmillan™ Company, New York, NY, 1998, pp. 53-57, 61, 72, 74, 103-4, 110-11, 214-18
The American Animal Hospital Association Encyclopedia of Cat Health and Care, Executive Committee with Les Sussman, Alan Dubowy, DVM, The Philip Lief Group, Inc., Hearst Books, NY, 1994, 35, 62-66, 144, 149, 165-69, 180, 223-4, 238
“Are Humans “Omnivores”?” by John Coleman, 2008
“Are Vets Bought By Big Pet Food?” by Caitlin Marie, Doc Of All Trades, July 10, 2019
“The Carnivore Connection to Nutrition in Cats” by Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, Timely Topics in Nutrition, JAVMA, Vol. 221 No. 11, Dec 1, 2002
“Commercial vs. Homemade Cat Food Diets, What You Need to Know”, by Cecilia Villaverde BVSc, PhD, Diplomate ECVCN, DACVIM (Nutrition) and Marge Chandler DVM, MS, MANZCVS, DACVIM (SAIM, Nutrition), MRCVS, Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 2022
Cat Owner’s Home Veterinary Handbook by Delbert G. Carlson, DVM & James M. Giffin, MD, Howell Book House, New York, NY, 1995, pp. 345-354, 386-7
The Doctor’s Book of Home Remedies by the editors of Prevention Pets™ Books, Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA, 1996, pp. 181-184, 192-194
Dr. Pitcairn’s Complete Secrets to the Natural Health of Dogs & Cats by Richard H. Pitcairn, DVM, PhD, and Susan Hubble Pitcairn, Rodale, New York, NY, 2005, pp. 3-118
“Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers” by Lorelei A Wakefield, Frances S Shofer, Kathryn E Michel, J Am Vet Med Assoc, July 1, 2006 (PubMed – nih.gov)
“Evaluation of recipes for home-prepared diets for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease” by Jennifer A Larsen, Elizabeth M Parks, Cailin R Heinze, Andrea J Fascetti – J Am Vet Med Assoc, March 1, 2012, PubMed (nih.gov)
“Feeding the Diabetic Cat” – Cornell Catwatch Newsletter, January 22, 2020
“Feeding the Pregnant Cat” by Krista Williams, BSc, DVM; Robin Downing, DVM, CVPP, CCRP, DAAPM, VCA Animal Hospitals
“Feeding Your Cat: Know the Basics of Feline Nutrition” by Lisa A. Pierson, DVM, CatInfo.org, Updated Nov 2016
“Feeding Your Cat“, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, July 2017
Feline Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians by Bonnie V. Beaver, DVM, MS, Dept. of Small Animal Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1992, p. 103, 109, 171-186, 189-191
“Figuring Out Food Sensitivities” by Cailin R. Heinze, VMD, MS, DACVIM (Nutrition), Clinical Nutrition Service, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, Petfoodology, Sep 25, 2019
“Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change” by Gowri Koneswaran and Danielle Nierenberg, PMC (nih.gov), May 2008
The Holistic Cat: A Complete Guide to Natural Health Care by Holly Mash, The Crowood Press Ltd., Ramsey, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England, 2014, pp. 60-61, 78-81, 99-115
“How Much Should Cats Eat And How Often” by Dr. Pete Wedderburn, DVM, All About Cats, Updated Jul 29, 2022
“How to Feed a Cat” – Cat Friendly Homes
“Humans are Omnivores“, Vegetarianism in a Nutshell, adapted from a talk by John McArdle, Ph.D., first published May/June 1991 in Vegetarian Journal
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Cats by Angela Rixon, Quarto Publishing, 2020 Edition published by Chartwell Books, New York, NY, pp.
“Increased dietary moisture is beneficial for urinary tract health in cats” by Dr. Abigail Stevenson, WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Oct 13, 2011
“Low Number of Owner-Reported Suspected Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens From Raw Meat-Based Diets Fed to Dogs and/or Cats” by Nicole Renee Cammack, Ryan Michael Yamka, and Vicki Jean Adams, Frontiers (frontiersin.org), October 12, 2021
The Merck/Merial Manual for Pet Health, Home Edition, Cynthia M. Kahn, BA, MA, Editor, Scott Line, DVM, PhD, Dipl ACVB, Associate Editor, with Editorial Board, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2007, pp. 337, 440, 453, 493, 1058, 1194, 1246
Natural Cat Care by Celeste Yarnall, Ph.D., Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. & Castle Books, Division of Book Sales Inc., Edison, NJ, 2000, pp. 47-102
Natural Health Care for Your Cat by Dr. Rudolf Deiser, Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., Hauppauge, NY, 1997, pp. 12-15, 106-7
“New Study Out on the Best Way to Feed a Cat“, by Jackie Brown, Catster, March 25, 2019
“Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats” by National Research Council (Author), Division on Earth and Life Studies (Author), & 3 more
“Nutrition & Nutritional Disorders” – Veterinary Pediatrics: Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months by Johnny D. Hoskins, DVM, PhD, Professor, Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, W.B. Saunders Company, a Division of Harcourt Brace & Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, 2nd edition, pp. 511-524
“Pet Food Decisions: How Do You Pick Your Pet’s Food?” by Lisa M. Freeman, DVM, PhD, DACVIM (Nutrition), Clinical Nutrition Service, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, Petfoodology, Dec 16, 2019
“Salmonella bacteriuria in a cat fed a Salmonella-contaminated diet” by Erika Fauth, Lisa M Freeman, Lilian Cornjeo, Jessica E Markovich, Nicol Janecko, J Scott Weese, Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, Sept 1, 2015
“Salmonella Infection in Cats“, PetMD
“Septicemic salmonellosis in two cats fed a raw-meat diet” by Shane L Stiver, Kendall S Frazier, Michael J Mauel, Eloise L Styer, Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, Nov-Dec 2003
“Think Your Pet has a Food Allergy? Eliminating Mistakes in Elimination Diet Trials” by Lisa M. Freeman, DVM, PhD, DACVIM (Nutrition), Clinical Nutrition Service, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, Petfoodology, April 4, 2022
Veterinary Pediatrics, Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months, 2nd Ed., by Johnny D. Hoskins, DVM, PhD, Professor, Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA, W.B. Saunders Co., Division of Harcourt Brace & Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp. 511-15
“What every pet owner should know about food allergies” by Clinical Nutrition Team, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, Jan 27, 2017
“What’s a carnivore?” – nutrition rvn
Updated July 10, 2023