Sources -"What Chemical Ingredients Are in Flea Treatments?" - Cat Info Detective

Sources -“What Chemical Ingredients Are in Flea Treatments?”

Skye Blake looking left through magnifying glass

Sources used on this website are either primary or secondary.  Primary are always preferable and have the most reliable information because primary sources are original and directly referenced. Scientific abstracts and data are good examples of primary sources.

paw prints coming in from a distance

Secondary sources are weaker because they usually consist of opinions or articles that give no sources of their own, although sometimes they refer to primary sources. Thus, when I use secondary sources most are those with some authority, such as veterinarian or cat behaviorist books and articles.

The following list of sources is for the page “What Chemical Ingredients Are in Flea Treatments?”. Some of the may sell products. This list is informational only. I make no money from it.

white cat lounging

List of Sources

curious cat sniffing a paintbrush

“2,4-D – Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information”, PAN Pesticides Database – Chemicals


“Best Flea Killing Shampoos for Dogs”, Dogs by Nina

“Bifenthrin Facts”, Pest Strategies



“Development of the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram (DIANA®), currently belongs to: Crop Protection Division, Domestic, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Health & Crop Sciences Research Laboratory, Yasutaka SHIMOKAWATOKO, Naoki SATO, Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Takafumi YAMAGUCHI, Hitoshi TANAKA, 2012

“Development of Spinosad and Attributes of A New Class of Insect Control Products”, University of Minnesota, Radcliffe’s IPM World Textbook, by Gary D. Thompson, Scott H. Hutchins and Thomas C. Sparks, Dow AgroSciences LLC

“Di-n-propyl Isocinchomeronate (MGK Repellent 326)”, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA)

“Dioctyl Sodium Sulphosuccinate”, CAS No 577-11-7, MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET, SDS/MSDS, CDH Fine Chemical

“Docusate Solution”, 2019,

“Efenpox”, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

“Efficacy and Longevity of Nitenpyram Against Adult Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)”, M. K. Rust, M. M. Waggoner, N. C. Hinkle, D. Stansfield, S. Barnett, Oxford Academic, Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 40, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 678–681

“Elanco launches Credelio oral flea and tick control for cats”, by Arlo Guthrie,, Veterinary News, 13 Nov 2018

“Etofenprox: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY use in DOGS and CATS. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote”, and “ETOFENPROX: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use”, by P. Junquera,, Parasites of Dogs, Cats, Horses & Livestock: Biology & Control, Last Updated: 15 December 2017

European Chemicals Agency, Substance Information


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

“Indoxacarb”, Pesticide Fact Sheet, Office of Prevention, Pesticides Environmental Protection and Toxic Substances Agency (7505C)

“Methoprene”, Pesticide Fact Sheet, June 2001 (Update of the March 1991 Methoprene R.E.D. Fact Sheet Environmental Protection Agency)

“Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids For Mosquito Control”, last updated 14 March 2019

“Prallethrin: Human Health Risk Assessment for the Public Health Use of Mosquito Adulticides Containing Prallethrin” (DP Barcode: D289335; Chemical Number: 128722), Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, November 21, 2003

“Prallethrin; Pesticide Tolerances”, A Rule by the Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Register, 10/29/2014

“Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids”

“Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Di-n-propyl isocinchomeronate (MGK® Repellent 326)”, Prevention, Pesticides And Toxic Substances (7508C), EPA 738-R-03-003, September 23, 2003, Revised: 03/11/05



“Tetramethrin”, Reregistration Eligibility Decision, (RED) Document for Tetramethrin, June 2008, Case No. 2660, Steven Bradbury, PhD, Director, Special Review and Reregistration Division

“Weighing Risks to Children from Dogs Wearing Seresto™ Collars”, Pacific Southwest, Region 9, October 2016

Extoxnet (Extension Toxicity Network)

Extoxnet (Extension Toxicity Network), A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and University of California at Davis:









“Flea Control”, Flea Science (encyclopedia)

“Fleas”, by David J. Shetlar and Jennifer E. Andon, Ohio State University Extension, Department of Entomology, January 5, 2012, HYG208

“Fluralaner”, by Rania Gollakner, BS DVM, VCA Hospitals

“Indoxacarb”,, by DoMyOwn staff

“In-home assessment of either topical fluralaner or topical selamectin for flea control in naturally infested cats in West Central Florida, USA”, by Michael W. Dryden, et al, BMC, BioMed Central, Parasites & Vectors, volume 11, Article number: 422 (2018)

“Insecticide Toxicities in Cats”, by Dr. Christine Hayes, Consulting Veterinarian in Clinical Toxicology, ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, Urbana, IL, a presentation at the 2nd Annual Online Veterinary Toxicology Symposium, Vet Education Pty, Ltd., in conjunction with the ASPCA Poison Control Centre, November 2014

“Insecticide Toxicity in Cats”, PetMD


“Moxidectin Topical”, by Rania Gollakner, BS, DVM, VCA Hospitals

“N-Octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide”, Restek, Pure Chromatography


National Center for Biotechnology Information , PMC, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health

“Efficacy and longevity of nitenpyram against adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)”, by Rust MK, Waggoner MM, Hinkle NC, Stansfield D, Barnett S., Journal of Med. Entomology, 2003 Sep;40(5):678-81

“Efficacy and safety of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner in the treatment of naturally occurring flea and tick infestations in cats presented as veterinary patients in Europe”, by Geurden T, Becskei C, Farkas R, Lin D, Rugg D, April 2017

“Efficacy and safety of a combination of selamectin plus sarolaner for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations and the treatment of ear mites in cats presented as veterinary patients in the United States”, Vatta AF, Myers MR, Rugg JJ, Chapin S, Pullins A, King VL, Rugg D, June 2019

“Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe”, Dorothee Stanneck,1Julia Rass,2Isabel Radeloff,2Eva Kruedewagen,1Christophe Le Sueur,3Klaus Hellmann,2and Klemens Krieger1, 31 March 2012

“Functional Domains of the Ubiquitous Chromatin Protein DEK”, by Ferdinand Kappes, Ingo Scholten, Nicole Richter, Claudia Gruss, and Tanja Waldmann, Molecular and Cellular Biology®,2004 Jul; 24(13): 6000–6010, doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.13.6000-6010.2004, PMCID: PMC480879, PMID: 15199153

“Indoxacarb poisoning: An unusual presentation as methemoglobinemia”, Indian J Crit Care Med. 2008 Oct-Dec; 12(4): 198–200, doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.45082, PMCID: PMC2738321, PMID: 19742262, Lakshmi Prasanna, S. Manimala Rao, Vishal Singh, Rash Kujur, and Gowrishankar

“Lotilaner – a novel formulation for cats provides systemic tick and flea control”, by Ian Wright, Published online 2018 Jul 13. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2970-x

“Safety of selamectin in cats”, Krautmann MJ, Novotny MJ, De Keulenaer K, Godin CS, Evans EI, McCall JW, Wang C, Rowan TG, Jernigan AD, Vet Parasitol., 2000 Aug 23;91(3-4):393-403

“Spinosad toxicity to pollinators and associated risk”, by Mayes MA, Thompson GD, Husband B, Miles MM, Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;179:37-71


National Pesticide Information Center

“Bifenthrin” – General Fact Sheet

“Finpronil” – General Fact Sheet

“Imidacloprid” – General Fact Sheet

“Imidacloprid” – Technical Fact Sheet

“Methoprene” – General Fact Sheet

“MGK-264” – General Fact Sheet

“d-Phenothrin” – General Fact Sheet

“Piperonyl Butoxide” – General Fact Sheet

“Permethrin” – General Fact Sheet

“Pyrethrins” – General Fact Sheet

“Pyriproxyfen” – General Fact Sheet

“Resmethrin” – General Fact Sheet

“Spinosad” – General Fact Sheet


“Pesticides & Pest Management”, Texas A&M University, AgriLife Extension, Insects in the City

“Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)”, Beyond, Chemical Watch Factsheet, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2006

“Piperonyl Butoxide”,

FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES, World Health Organization, Nov. 2004

“Pyrethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide Topical”, Medline Plus

“Pyridine”, New World Encyclopedia™

“Pyridine: Structure, Formula & Physical Properties”,

“Pyriproxyfen”, Pet Coach


PubChem, NIH, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information

Specific chemical fact sheet pages:


“Dipropyl isocinchomeronate”

“Docusate Sodium”






Revolution® (selamectin), Prescribing Information

“Safety of concurrent treatment of cats with fluralaner and emodepsid–praziquantel”, by Feli M. Walther, Mark J. Allan & Rainer K. A. Roepke, BMC, BioMed Central, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 9, Article number: 322, 06 June 2016

“Safety of selamectin in cats”, by M.J. Krautmann, et al,, Article in Veterinary Parasitology 91(3-4):393-403, September 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00307-1, Source: PubMed

“(S)-Methoprene”, Central Life Sciences®

“Simparica (sarolaner) Chewables [for dogs only]”,

“Spinetoram: How Artificial Intelligence Combined Natural Fermentation with Synthetic Chemistry to Produce a New Spinosyn Insecticide”, by James Dripps, Senior Research Scientist, Brian Olson, Research Scientist, Thomas Sparks, Advisor, and Gary Crouse, Research Scientist, Dow AgroSciences, Plant Management Network,Accepted for publication 28 May 2008, Published 22 August 2008

“Spinosad: An Insecticide To Make Organic Gardeners Smile”, by Dr. Michael Merchant, Urban Entomologist, Texas A&M University, March 2004

“Spinosad: The First Selective, Broad-Spectrum Insecticide”, University of Connecticut, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, Integrated Pest Management, by T. Jude Boucher, Cooperative Extension System, 1999, Reviewed 2012

Science Direct

“Efficacy and safety of a combination of selamectin plus sarolaner for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations and the treatment of ear mites in cats presented as veterinary patients in the United States”, by Adriano F. Vatta, Melanie R.Myers, Jady J. Rugg, Sara Chapin, Aleah Pullins, Vickie L.King, DouglasRugg

“Evaluation of an 11.2% spinetoram topical spot-on solution for the control of experimental and natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on cats in Europe”, David W.Wheeler, et al, Veterinary Parasitology,
Volume 258, 15 July 2018, Pages 99-107

“Flumethrin”, 2018

“Imidacloprid”, Veterinary Toxicology (Third Edition), 2018

“Indoxacarb”, Small Animal Toxicology (Third Edition), 2013

“Nitenpyram”, Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice (Third Edition), 2006


“Piperonyl Butoxide”






“Toxicology Brief: The 10 most common toxicoses in cats”, by Eric K. Dunayer, MS, VMD, DABT, DABVT, Valentina Merola, DVM, DABT, DVM360™, Jun 01, 2006

“ULTRAGUARD PRO for Cats – SPOT-ON against FLEAS and TICKS – HARTZ- etofenprox + methoprene – pyrethroid + juvenile hormone analogue”, by P. Junquera,, Parasites of Dogs, Cats, Horses & Livestock: Biology & Control, last updated: 19 May 2018

U.S. Food & Drug Administration

“FDA Alerts Pet Owners and Veterinarians About Potential for Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Certain Flea and Tick Products”, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Animal Drug Safety Communication: Updated 8 Aug, 2019

“FDA Approves ProHeart 12 (moxidectin) for Prevention of Heartworm Disease in Dogs”, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, 2 July 2019

“Highlights of Prescribing Information…Moxidectin”, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Moxidectin tablets, for oral use, Initial U.S. Approval: 2018


“What Is Pyrethrin Insecticide?”, by Jon VanZile, The Spruce, updated 10/21/19

“What Is Pyrethrin? Is It Safe?”, Safer® Brand















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