Using CBD For Cats - Cat Info Detective

Using CBD For Cats

Skye Blake looking left through magnifying glass

Greetings feline fanciers! Skye Blake here, continuing the trail toward understanding CBD for cats.

Start the trail at ” CBD Oil for Cats – What Is It? Does It Work?” for a more complete picture of CBD, marijuana and your fabulous feline friend!

It can make the difference between a happy cat and a very sick one!

paw prints coming in from a distance

Before You Buy Any CBD Products

cat looking at dropper of CBD oil

Before you think “My cat’s always anxious… I’ll try some CBD”, get your nervous nelly to the vet for a thorough exam and diagnosis.

Know what you’re dealing with before using any form of CBD!

Discuss with your vet what medications might help your cat’s particular condition.

If your cat is on other medications review them with your vet and find out if CBD would interfere with any of them.

Lab tech looking through microscope - vet medicine

If your vet is uncertain or can’t discuss CBD with you, check with a pharmacist.

CBD can inhibit the effectiveness of certain enzymes, particularly drugs for liver problems.

Once you have a diagnosis and you believe CBD is something worth trying for your cat, your next step is to decide what type of product is best.

Is CBD Safe for Cats?

Essential oil, lime, mint, wintergreen - oils, fleas

Safety is an ongoing question with CBD products because they’re so new for animals. It’s important for your special buddy right?

Since it’s been studied with people and lab animals, assumptions are made that similar benefits, side effects, and long-term effects are the same for cats.

Are these assumptions correct? There are stories of cats responding well in specific situations, but only time and clinical studies will tell for sure.

Overdosing

flowering cannabis plant

Some people claim you can’t overdose a cat on CBD since any excess is eliminated in waste.

But scientific evidence shows that cats don’t absorb or process CBD as quickly as dogs or humans.

This means a cat’s body takes time to eliminate toxins.

Sleepy tabby, white cat

The longer it takes, the more chance there is of toxins absorbing into the bloodstream and poisoning the cat.

While the evidence is not yet in about overdoses, it pays to be careful with cats and avoid giving too much.

Currently, there are no long-term studies or anecdotal evidence of serious side effects when using the proper dosage of CBD oil for cats.

CBD Side Effects

Ginger, orange, white tabby kitten curled up sleeping

Side effects can happen when you give a cat too much CBD at one time.

Fortunately, these effects should wear off in a few hours, but every cat is individual, so watch your buddy closely.

Avoid side effects… start with small doses and gradually add more over a few days to give your cat’s body time to adjust.

woman holding cat trying to give it CBD oil

Possible side effects are…

  • drowsiness
  • behavior changes
  • diarrhea
  • nausea/vomiting
  • appetite/weight changes
  • lower blood pressure
  • dry mouth
tabby drinking water from pipe

Dry mouth… blech! You know what that’s like.

It’s uncomfortable and makes it hard to swallow, so your poor kitty wants to drink more water.

CBD oil is bitter and we cats don’t like things bitter… yuck! It’ll come right back up.

The good news is there are products with bacon, chicken, salmon, liver, and other flavors… yummy!

Always be alert when using any medication for signs your cat may having a negative reaction to it.

Possible Addiction

Tabby & white cat looking surprised peering in a carrier

Uh oh, can my cat get addicted to CBD?

Probably not. CBD doesn’t have THC so it’s not addictive in people.

Studies in humans show it has the same effect as a placebo and can actually help alleviate withdrawal symptoms in addicts.

It’s possible to assume from this that the same placebo effect is true for cats and CBD isn’t physically addictive.

This assumption has not yet been scientifically studied or proven in cats.

Things to Know About CBD Products

Pricing

figure holding dollar sign

Compare prices but remember you get what you pay for with CBD, especially the oils.

Cheaper products often have less CBD than they say they have, along with impurities that can hurt your cat.

Review the Certificate of Analysis to see what’s in the product you’re using.

Check with your vet about using any products with pregnant, lactating cats or kittens. Be extra cautious in these situations.

In following the CBD trails, I found no specific info about the effects of CBD on kittens or pregnant and lactating mama cats.

Manufacturers

mortar & pestle

Check the information on each manufacturer.

Look for smaller companies specifically making oils formulated for pets, not rebranding oil made for people.

Small companies are more interested in purity and quality than mass-production and they’ll openly explain how they process their products.

Quality

CBD-cannabis leaves, chemical compound

Purity, dosage amount, potency and speed of absorbency all affect the quality of CBD and will affect how your cat responds to any product.

Always read the manufacturer’s information and review the Certificate of Analysis.

Independent Lab Results

Scientist pouring liquid into a test tube - vet

Reputable CBD manufacturers send out their products to 3rd-party laboratories for analysis.

Once the analysis is complete, the lab provides the manufacturers with a Certificate of Analysis (COA) showing the amount of CBD, THC, other cannabidiols, and contaminants (e.g., fungus, metal, bacteria).

This information is very important since there’s no oversight or industry standard yet established.

Test tubes in lab - vet medicine, CBD

You can check the test results for the specific batch of the product you’ve bought so you know exactly what’s in the bottle.

Either match a batch number found on the side of your bottle to a report number found on the company website or contact the company.

Reading lab results may sound boring, but it’s not difficult and is the only way to know you’re getting a good quality product.

calico cat licking paw

Isn’t your feline friend worth it?

Find out more at… “CBD Lab Results: Why You Need to Read & Understand Them“.

Full & Broad Spectrum, CBD Isolate

cannabis plant, CBD

What the heck is “full spectrum”, “broad spectrum”, or “CBD isolate”?

You’ll see these terms mentioned with many CBD products.

They make a difference in the type of CBD product you choose.

It’s important to decide which is best for the condition you’re trying to alleviate.

woman holding bottle of CBD oil

Full Spectrum” – uses all parts of the hemp plant, including components that create the “entourage effect” that works with CBD to make it more effective.

Full Spectrum products contain a trace amount of THC (0.3% or less).

Broad Spectrum” – uses all parts of the plant and all THC is removed.

People who are worried about THC, even in small amounts, prefer to use this type.

CBD Isolate” – extracts only CBD, so it’s in its purest form. It’s refined into a fine white powder of about 99% CBD.

CBD isolate has no taste or odor and is used in products like treats and creams.

Its purity gives you precise control over how much CBD you’re giving your cat.

Types of CBD Products for Cats

tabby cat in open hard carrier

Currently, CBD for cats is available in these forms…

  • Oils/Tinctures
  • Chews/Treats
  • Topical Creams
  • Capsules

All CBD Products Should…

CBD salve
  • Have independent lab test results showing the quality of cannabis, levels of CBD and THC, and any contaminants like metals, bacteria, and fungus
  • Be specifically for pets or cats
  • Be full spectrum, broad spectrum, or CBD isolate
  • Show the amount of CBD in milligrams (mg) and total amount of CBD in the product (“hemp oil” products have less CBD than “CBD oil” or “hemp seed oil”)
persian cats on cat tree
  • Have less than 0.3% TCH, preferably none
  • Have no artificial colors, flavors or preservatives
  • Be grain-free with all natural ingredients (to keep calories low)
CBD, hemp plant growing
  • Be priced according to quality (lower pricing usually means less quality, less CBD)
  • Use organically grown hemp plants (hemp absorbs toxins from soil so organic keeps impurities out)
  • Use hemp grown in the United States under strict regulations

Chews & Treats

delta-8-THC, CBD Gummies

Treats and chews (soft treats)… yum!!

We kitties love our treats and these are easy to give your cat.

They absorb more slowly since they go through the digestive system, so aren’t made for quick pain relief.

They’re less effective than oils and not as precise with CBD dosage amounts.

Treats are useful for mild conditions but add calories that you may not want your cat to have.

Both crunchy and chewy treats have flavors that appeal to cats (e.g., salmon, chicken, liver).

Capsules

hand holding clear gel pill capsule

Capsules… hmm. Ever tried giving one to your cat… and survived!?

These tend to work better for dogs than cats unless you do well with “pilling” your cat.

It takes longer for the CBD to be absorbed since it’s going through the digestive system instead of mucous membranes in the mouth.

Look for the same information as with other CBD products.

Topical Creams

CBD cream, lotion

Rub some cream into the inner part of your cat’s ears so it’ll absorb quickly through the skin.

This is good for anxious times like going to the vet (ahh!) or thunderstorms (yikes!).

Most CBD creams are made for people so look for ones formulated specifically for pets or cats.

Oils (Tinctures)

cbd oil, cannabis leaf

CBD in oil goes immediately into a cat’s bloodstream through the mucous membranes of the mouth, where it can help give relief for pain or anxiety.

This makes it more effective for immediate relief than lotions, capsules or treats.

side view of cat's face near dropper of CBD oil

The oil itself should have only three ingredients…

  • pure CBD
  • a carrier oil
  • natural flavoring (if added)

Anything else is unnecessary and some additives can be toxic to your cat.

Differences in Oils

cbd-oil bottle with dropper

There are notable differences between CBD oil, hemp oil, and hemp seed oil.

They are made from different parts of the hemp plant.

CBD is extracted from the flowers and leaves, while hemp seeds are the basis for hemp seed oil.

Hemp seed oil has little to no CBD is a carrier oil when CBD is added.

persian cat-white facing forward

It’s good for digestive health and a shiny coat, while CBD is for pain relief with anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory uses.

If you want CBD oil, be sure the label says “CBD oil” or “hemp extract” and check how much CBD is in it (in milligrams).

Processing Methods of CBD Oil

CO2 - CBD oil process

CBD should be extracted from the hemp plant using a process called “supercritical CO2 extraction”.

This is the best process because it keeps the highest amount of potency from the plant and is safe.

“Standard CO2 extraction, cold-press extraction, steam distillation, and extraction with natural solvents are all safe but less desirable in terms of potency.”1Best CBD Oil For Cats: Reviews And Complete Buying Guide” by Nina Julia, CFAH. Last updated: October 17, 2021

Absorption & Emulsion

oil drops emulsion- CBD

How quickly and thoroughly does a cat’s body absorb CBD?

It depends on how well the CBD is emulsified (combined) with the oil (think salad dressing).

Most people want faster absorption, although sometimes slower is better for certain conditions.

cat lounging between speakers-music

There are three types of emulsion that affect oil absorption…

  • Standard – has large particles that absorb poorly; found in lowest quality and cheapest oils
  • Liposomal – has smaller particles that absorb well; a bit better quality and slightly higher prices
  • Nano-sized – has smallest particles that absorb the best; only a few CBD manufacturers use this type

Dosage Guide

How much CBD do I give my cat?

woman holding dropper of CBD oil near cat

The best way to figure out how much to give is to carefully follow directions for each specific product.

Even though some are in treat and chew form, you’re still using them as medication.

There’s no oversight or uniform measurement of dosages.

You may be giving a more or less concentrated dose to your cat than you think you are if you don’t follow directions carefully.

dark tabby cat at rest looking back over shoulder

Don’t use human dosages and make them smaller, as if your cat were a small version of a person.

Your cat’s body processes everything differently than yours and can’t tolerate as much as you can.

When starting out, err on the side of caution. It’s better to underdose than overdose.

Dosage for CBD Oil

woman measuring CBD oil in dropper

Oils (tinctures) are different from the other types of CBD products.

Dosage must be determined separately for both the CBD and the oil. With the right dose your cat will be calmer but not lethargic.

Amount of CBD Determined by Cat’s Weight
cat lying in bike basket

“There’s no approved recommended daily intake (RDI) for pet CBD oil yet, but experts recommend giving cats 1 mg (low dose for mild symptoms), 3 mg (medium dose for moderate symptoms), and 5 mg (high dose for severe symptoms) of CBD per 10 pounds of body weight.” 2 CBD Oil for Cats With Kidney Disease – CFAH

“The key number to look for is listed as mg/ml, which means milligrams per milliliter. It tells you how many milligrams of CBD are in each milliliter of oil. (Ignore the big number on the bottle like “125mg” – that tells you how much cannabidiol is in the entire bottle.)” 3Best CBD Oil For Cats: Reviews And Complete Buying Guide” by Nina Julia, CFAH, October 17, 2021

Amount of Oil
numbers, counting

“If you buy CBD oil that contains 4mg/ml, divide by four, and you find that it contains 1 milligram of CBD in each ¼ milliliter of oil. ¼ milliliter would be the right dose.” 4Best CBD Oil For Cats: Reviews And Complete Buying Guide” by Nina Julia, CFAH, October 17, 2021

How Quickly Will My Cat Respond to CBD Oil?

cat reaching for toy

“Every cat responds differently to CBD oil, but in general, you can expect the following response times:

  • When giving CBD directly into your cat’s mouth (sublingually) – About 20-60 minutes
  • When giving CBD in your cat’s food – About 45–90 minutes

Note: When treating chronic issues, you may not see optimal results until 2 to 4 weeks of steady use.”5 CBD Oil For Cats: Peeing, Urinary Tract Infections, Appetite & More (cannanine.com)

It’s possible a tolerance can be built up over time and you’ll have to change the dosage slowly to continue the helpful effects.

How to Get CBD Oil Into Your Cat

cat sitting on floor looking at dropper of CBD oil held by woman

Now here’s the fun part! Will your cat let you stick a dropper in her mouth (be sure it’s a plastic one, not glass)?

Getting the oil into your cat can be a sticky wicket!

It’s supposed to go under the tongue, and while some of my feline brethren are chill enough to allow it, many won’t sit still for it.

tuxedo cat sniffing dropper of fragrance

Another idea… If your cat will sniff at the dropper, she can lick it off the end while you squeeze out the number of drops needed.

Be sure to clean the dropper before putting it back in the bottle.

cat being fed treat-closeup

If your cat won’t let you near her mouth, try using training techniques with her favorite treats, one small step at a time.

Discover more about training at “Leash and Harness Training Your Cat“, “Cat Carrier Wars…” and “Teach a Cat to Come When Called“.

You can put it in her food, but it will not be as effective. Try putting the drops in the bowl just before feeding.

tabby cat eating from a bowl

That way she can lick it up first (especially if it tastes like bacon!) and get it in her system before the food.

Putting some on your cat’s paw to lick is another option, but there’s no guarantee she’ll get the correct amount of CBD.

Some suggest rubbing it on the inside of the ears since it will absorb quickly there. Both oils and creams can be applied in this way.

CBD Products For Cats

people in a meeting - vets

To make it easier for you, here’s a list of CBD products. Unless otherwise noted, I make no money from them.

These are all made and sold by companies that give you access to Certificates of Analysis for their products.

If you don’t see the COA information right away, check the FAQ section on their sites.

Some say they’re vet-approved or developed with vets, which is a plus, but I’m unable to confirm that at this point.

Capsules

capsules spilling out of bottle - vet medicine, CBD

Capsules are not as popular for cats as other products, so they’re more difficult to find.

Unless otherwise noted, I make no money from them.

Here’s an option…

CBD & Hemp Oil Capsules for Cats & Dogs – Bluebird Botanicals

Chews/Treats

Tonkinese cat sniffing treat held by woman

These are a convenient (and yummy!) way of getting CBD into your cat, but they also add calories.

Unless otherwise noted, I make no money from them.

CBD Calming Pet Chews – Medterra

CBD Joint Support Chews For Pets – Medterra

CBD Soft Chews for Cats – cbdMD

Creams/Lotions

CBD cream, lotion

There aren’t many creams available yet made specifically for pets, but here are a few…

Unless otherwise noted, I make no money from them.

CBD Topical Skin Cream For Dogs & Cats – Cannanine

PANA Pet CBD For Cats – Transdermal CBD Creme – Panacea

Organic Full Spectrum Hemp Oil Topical Cream – Treatibles

Oils

woman holding bottle of CBD oil

Here are some possible brands of good quality oil, all formulated for pets or cats, not people.

Unless otherwise noted, I make no money from them.

CBD for Dogs, Cats and Pets – Procana Shop Now (I make a small amount of money on sales of Procana products)

Cat CBD Oil Tincture – CBD American Shaman

CBD for Cats | Hemp Oil for Cats | Canna-Pet®

CBD Oil for Cats – CBD Cat Tinctures – cbdMD

cannabis plant leaf

Gold Bee Pet CBD Oil – Gold Bee

Pure CBD Oil for Pets – Organic CBD Oil for Dogs & Pets – Green Gorilla

CBD Oil Drops for Small Cats and Dogs – Green Roads

CBD Oil For Cats – Holistapet

cat sitting on floor looking at dropper of CBD oil held by woman

Buy 100% Organic Full Spectrum CBD Oil for Cats – Honest Paws®

Premium CBD Pet Tincture for Dogs & Cats – Joy Organics

CBD Oil Pets – JustCBD

CBD Tincture for Pets – Medterra

CBD Oil for Dogs & Cats – NuLeaf Naturals

cbd-oil with leaf in background

CBD Oil For Pets – Pet Hemp Company

Royal CBD for Dogs – Royal (can be used for cats at half the dosage)

Organic Full Spectrum Hemp Oil – Treatibles

CBD For Cats

cat on rug-on side watching something

As you can see, CBD in whatever form you use, must be dealt with as you would any medication.

Work with it under a vet’s guidance and follow manufacturer instructions carefully.

While there’s a lot more research to be done, there seem to be benefits in using CBD for my fellow scaredy-cats and felines with chronic inflammatory conditions.


Hemp Cat LitterCBD Oil for Cats – What Is It? Does It Work?
What Are Essential Oils?Symptoms of Illness In Your Cat
First Aid For Cats Veterinary Specialists – What Kinds Are There?
What Does a Veterinarian Do?


Sources

Sources used on this website are either primary or secondary.

Primary are always preferable and have the most reliable information because primary sources are original and directly referenced. Scientific abstracts and data are good examples of primary sources.

Secondary sources are weaker because they usually consist of opinions or articles that give no sources of their own.

However, sometimes they refer to primary sources.

So, when I use secondary sources, most are those with some authority, such as veterinarian or cat behaviorist books and articles.

List of Sources

5 Things to Know Before Using Medical Cannabis for Your Pets” by Hayley Fox, Leafly, May 18, 2017

6 Potential Side Effects of CBD Oils for Cats: What You Should Know!” by Christian Adams, Excited Cats, last updated: Aug 22, 2021

The 10 Best CBD for Cats in 2021-2022” – CBD Awareness Project (cbdoil.org), November 22, 2019

A-B

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L” – by E.A. Formukong, A.T. Evans, F.J., EvansPubMed (nih.gov), August 1988

Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa” by Alexandre R de Mello Schier, Natalia P de Oliveira Ribeiro, Danielle S Coutinho, Sergio Machado, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Jose A Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Antonio E Nardi, Adriana C Silva – PubMed (nih.gov)

Best CBD Oil For Cats: Reviews And Complete Buying Guide” by Nina Julia, CFAH. Last updated: October 17, 2021

Best CBD Oil for Cats – The Top CBD Brands for Your Kitty“, cannabissupplementsforpets.com

Ca

CANNABIDIOL (CBD)“, by Professor Jason White, Adelaide, Australia, Ms. Dilkushi Poovendran, Geneva, Switzerland, Dr. Stephanie Kershaw, Adelaide, Australia, World Health Organization, Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, November 6-10, 2017

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders” by Esther M. Blessing, Maria M. Steenkamp, Jorge Manzanares, and Charles R. Marmar, nih.gov, October 2015

Cannabinoids inhibit nitric oxide production in bone marrow derived feline macrophages” by W Ponti, T Rubino, M Bardotti, G Poli, D Parolaro, PubMed (nih.gov), October 2001

Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates” by J M McPartland, J Agraval, D Gleeson, K Heasman, M Glass, PubMed (nih.gov), March 2006

Cannabinoids in health and disease” by Natalya M. Kogan, MSc and Raphael Mechoulam, PhD, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Dept, Pharmacy School, Ein-Kerem Medical Campus, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, December 2007, nih.gov

Cannabis 101: CBD for Cats” by Dr. Angie Krause, DVM, CVA, CCRT, Boulder Holistic Vet

Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals” by Zerrin Atakan, (nih.gov), December 2012

Cannabis and Cats: A Feline Guide to Marijuana, CBD, and Hemp” by Dorothy Harris, cnbs.org, last updated: February 25, 2019

Cannabis (Marijuana) and Cannabinoids: What You Need To Know“, NCCIH (nih.gov)

Cannabis, One Health, and Veterinary Medicine: Cannabinoids’ Role in Public Health, Food Safety, and Translational Medicine” – by Sivan Ritter, D.V.M., B.A., Lilach Zadik-Weiss, M.V.P.H., D.V.M., B.Sc.Ag., L.L.B., Osnat Almogi-Hazan, Ph.D., and Reuven Or, M.D., nih.gov, January 30, 2020

CBD

CBD, Cannabinoid & Hemp Research“, Canna-Pet®

CBD for Seizures in Cats“, by Fay Smith, Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sara Redding Ochoa, DVM, CBD Clinicals, Updated on November 1, 2021

CBD Lab Results: Why You Need to Read & Understand Them” by Glory Finnegan (neurogan.com), September 13, 2019

CBD Oil for Cats: Here’s Everything You Need to Know” by Tim Kalantjakos, The CBD Insider, September 28, 2020 

CBD Oil for Cats: How to Reduce Pain & Inflammation Naturally” by Brandon Nolte, healthyhempoil.com

CBD Oil For Cats: Peeing, Urinary Tract Infections, Appetite & More“, cannanine.com, April 5, 2021

CBD Oil for Cats: What You Need to Know“, by Kate Hughes, PetMD

CBD Oil for Cats With Kidney Disease” by Nina Julia, CFAH, last updated: October 17, 2021

CBD Oil for Cats With Seizures and Epilepsy” by Nina Julia, CFAH, Last updated: August 31, 2021

CBD for Dogs Buyer’s Guide: 8 Things To Consider Before Buying CBD Oil for Your Dog“, cannanine.com, April 5, 2021

CBD Oil For Senior Cats: Does CBD Oil Help Arthritis In Cats?” (cannanine.com)

D-P

The Endocannabinoid System of Animals” by Robert J. Silver, nih.gov, September 16, 2019

FDA warns companies illegally selling CBD products“, American Veterinary Medical Association (avma.org), January 15, 2020

How to Give CBD Oil to Cats – Benefits & CBD Dosage” by Glory Finnegan, neurogan.com, February 14, 2021

Marijuana intoxication in a cat” by Agnieszka Janeczek, Marcin Zawadzki, Pawel Szpot, and Artur Niedzwiedz, nih.gov, July 11, 2018

New Developments in Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam“, (adapted from Mavericks of Medicine by David Jay Brown), Longevity Medicine Review (lmreview.com)

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs” by Lauri-Jo Gamble, Jordyn M. Boesch, Christopher W. FryeWayne S. Schwark, Sabine Mann, Lisa Wolfe, Holly Brown, Erin S. Berthelsen and Joseph J. Wakshlag, Frontiers In Veterinary Science (frontiersin.org), July 23, 2018

Preliminary data from CBD clinical trials ‘promising’” by Mary Gulden, Colorado State University (colostate.edu), July 2018

Q-Z

Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy” by Stephanie McGrath, Lisa R Bartner, Sangeeta Rao, Rebecca A Packer, Daniel L Gustafson, PubMed (nih.gov), June 1, 2019

Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD)“, Nora’s Blog, NIDA (drugabuse.gov), July 20, 2015

The Science of CBD and Cannabis to Cats & Dogs” by Alexa Peters, Leafly, October 11, 2018

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats” by Kelly A. Deabold, Wayne S. Schwark, Lisa Wolf, and Joseph J. Wakshlag, mdpi.com, August 30, 2019

Top 5 Best Strains for CBD Oil” – 2021 UPDATE, Weedseedsexpress

What is CBD Isolate & Whole Plant CBD Oil? What’s the Difference?” by Cherie S., madebyhemp.com, Feb 1, 2018 

What Is Hemp? The Differences Between Hemp vs. Marijuana” (weedmaps.com)

Which Cannabis Strains are Highest in CBD?” by Grant Hosking, Modern Nature, April 09, 2019

Why Your Veterinarian Might Not Want to Talk About CBD Oil”, cannanine.com, April 5, 2021

Updated May 17, 2022

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